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keiran mannion

Communication and Media Studies / UOW / 19 / Sydney

Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road?

Did you know Australia kills 500 million chickens per year for meat? Or that, according to the RSPCA, the only reason male chicks are slaughtered as they cannot lay eggs and they are not suitable for chicken-meat production?

Yet their portrayal in the media is highly constructed and almost humanised to the point that when watching a movie, such as Chicken Run or Finding Nemo, everyone will be rooting for the animals but in real life they do not make the connection to where animal products come from. Animal activists PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) encourage consumers to look past the façade that the meat industry is humane and sustainable and illustrate how animals are really being treated.

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How would you define free range? Lilydale defines ‘free range’ as having comfortable barn space with access to outdoor range areas, with access to nutritious feed. Alternatively, PETA argues that “while buying free range eggs from local farmers who don’t cram hens into small, filthy cages is kinder than buying eggs that were produced on factory farms, it’s not a truly viable – or humane – solution.”

If there was no organisations like PETA within the media sphere how would we really know what goes on behind closed factory doors. Relying on movies, the words of chicken farmers and organisations such as Sea World is undependable, as they paint a picture of what you want to see rather than what really goes on.

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In  North Portland, Oregon a chicken caused a traffic jam because it was trying to cross the road. Cars were stopped for the sake of the chickens and even local authorities were called. While this story might be cute, it is particularly interesting when you study the behaviour of our society.

When people are driving down the road and a duck, chicken or a family of geese are trying to cross the road they are usually inclined to stop, wait and admire the cuteness of the fluffy creature. But then they drive three blocks down the road to the nearest McDonald’s and order some chicken nuggets. We desire to see the chicken make it safely to the other side of the road yet we participate in the confinement and slaughter of millions of chickens every year and say/do nothing when they are violated and pieces of their body are dismembered, fried and then put on menus with adjectives such as juicy, succulent and crispy.

So, if we wouldn’t want to keep driving and run over the chicken, when we don’t have to, how come we give our money and support to this industry, when we don’t have to? Our natural instinct is to love and protect them, yet we contribute to the abuse, violence and dismemberment they endure. We often spare ourselves the sight of how these beings go from the farm to our plate.

My younger sister is a vegan and has been for 1 year, being vegetarian 1 year before that. I asked for her opinion on what made her go vegan. Her thoughts are below.

“In my childhood I never made the connection between the pets that I played with and the animals that would lay still and disfigured on my plate. My naive mindset allowed me to believe they had no correspondence with each other and that pain, torture or cruelty could not be a byproduct of the food that my parents would serve me.  After watching a few videos that came up on my Facebook newsfeed, I was curious about the topic and decided to watch a documentary called ‘Earthlings’.  It opened up a new perspective and exposed the horrendous meat, egg and dairy industries that I would contribute to and the manipulation that companies put on society just to keep cash flowing. Growing up with the perception that vegans were weird, hippie people, I never thought I would be one in a thousand years.”

 

Selfie Revolution

Selfies are vastly becoming a new genre of photograph, taken by anyone and shared on social media at the discretion of the poster. The habit of posting selfies has spread across all digital platforms but does this make the people who post selfies on social media sites narcissistic and psychopathic, or self-objectifying? And why is the rise of the naked selfie so dominant in today’s culture?
With the rise of the ‘attention economy’ and the shift to online media to determine the status of its users via selfies, directs people to think about what we are valuing in today’s society. Is it okay to seek gratification of self by posting semi nude photos online? Self-confessed selfie queen Kim Kardashian-West recently posted a naked selfie to Facebook with many mixed responses from viewers. As seen below some people are disgusted that she would be posting this to an online platform when she has young children to set an example for. Others are all for her naked selfie saying that if they looked this good they would absolutely be advertising it for the world to see.
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I believe it is just a ploy to make sure people are still talking about her (remember that episode of Keeping Up With the Kardashians when Kim realises she is the most googled person and Khloe points out it’s probably because she spends all day googling herself). In my opinion Kim is just making sure people still see her as relevant even with 2 kids and a ring on her finger. This attitude brings in the idea that selfies are just about controlling the self-image and seizing gaze of those around us. Kim Kardashian is pretty much just a walking, talking self-marketing machine, but what world would it be without KKW to laugh at.
Elite Daily’s Jessica Schirripa commented on selfie taking, saying:
“When a female expresses herself in a half-naked selfie with an obscure musical lyric underneath, what is she saying about herself? It is a clear attempt and reach for reassurance of her appearance and attention and offers a complete lack of substance.”
This point is so relevant when considering that selfies are now being used as a scheme for self-gratification, whereby someone like Kim is posting these nude selfies online thinking that she is expressing herself and empowering others, when really a lot of harm can come from nude selfies. Kim is failing to defend these girls from harm and failing to support them from not being harmed.
Famous entertainer/model Emily Ratajkowski has now jumped on the band wagon with KKW and stated that she is not shamed or sorry for posting picture of her half naked body, claiming that by doing this she is no less worthy of fighting for feminism and the reclaiming of female sexuality. Researchers Tiidenberg and Gomez Cruz discuss “approaches that focus on the social impact of one’s personal sense of empowerment additionally focus on connectedness and the ability to effect change (Stavrositu and 82 Body & Society 21(4)”.
Although Emily and Kim are promoting change with the idea that it is okay for any girl, no matter what age to post nude selfies with little regard for the fact that their audience is easily influenced by their actions and could create a harmful situation by replicating their ‘expression’.

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References

Tiidenberg, K & Go´mez Cruz, E 2015, ‘Selfies, Image and the Re-making of the Body’, Body & Society, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 77-102.

A Time To Reflect…

“Without reflection, we go blindly on our way, creating more unintended consequences, and failing to achieve anything useful.”

– Margaret J. Wheatley

So once again the blogging experience has come to an end for this semester, as I sit at my desk on a 35 degree Sunday afternoon, fumbling for words to type as begin to think about what to even say in this reflection. Let me just start by saying after 2 years of blogging I somewhat have the hang of this, I think? After writing essays for the previous few years in high school and also throughout uni I struggled at first to create an educated but somewhat informal environment in my writing, but as time went on and I continued to blog more and more it came to me. One thing I underestimated is how hard it is to engage an audience and get some discussion on my blog.

This video from Koozai gives some tips on how to write great web content, which I personally found could be really useful if you need a helping hand when it comes to writing a blog. It highlights and addresses some highly useful points and I recommend watching it.

At the beginning of my Communications and Media degree I had never actually thought of a blog as being a useful platform to express opinions and engage readers, or even it be something I would have to do as an assignment. But here I am onto my fourth BCM subject and my fourth lot of blogs and what have I learnt? Well you best read on if you want to find out.

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This semester the focus of our blogging and class discussion has been on how we behave spatially, how we use media, what makes media use possible and what does media use make possible. With this in mind at the start of the semester I went in with an returning idea from all my other BCM subjects of blogging and creating talk in a public space. With my mostly weekly blogs I have realised this semester, most of all, how hard it really is to engage an audience and direct them to my blog and then in turn get them to comment and create discussion. Although I have found that with following all my classmates and BCM friends on WordPress and tracking the hashtag #bcm240 that I can easily communicate and read the blogs of likeminded students and go from there. Also the weekly announcement of my (and others) blog posts via Twitter on the #bcm240 hashtag was a good starting point to engage with other audiences with the ability to join in on larger conversations. There is always a plethora of links to blogs being posted with requests to read and comment, which therefore acts as a primary link to creating and engaging with an audience. While sitting here looking back on the semester I can say that when writing posts each week doing some research into the topic helps. Finding out other opinions on the topic, whether it be from academics or fellow students, can give insights on how to shape your blog post and create an opinion in your own mind. Having some academic research, that will be somewhat appealing to readers, to back up your ideas is a must so you don’t just sound like you’re rambling on and linking out to these writings for further readings is a way to encourage further knowledge and engagement. The most important thing i’ve found is if it is interesting to you then it will be interesting to others, running a blog can actually be fun along with it being a great tool for learning, researching, imparting opinions, writing in public and engaging audiences.

In his WordPress blog, ‘15 Reasons I Think You Should Blog’, Joshua Becker points out that blogging helps you become a better writer whether you intend to or not, which leads to being a better thinker as “the blogging process encourages you to stop and think deeper. You will delve deeper into the matters of your life and the worldview that shapes them.” So pretty much the blogging process can make you sound a whole lot smarter without being a tedious task. Similarly, in Joshua Fields Millburn’s blog post, ‘How To Start a Successful Blog Today‘, he talks about the importance of your content adding value to your readers lives. He points out it is the only way to keep the people coming back to your blog and to get someones “longterm buy-in”. With all this in mind I have been able to make sure my blogging is succinct and comprehendible and that everything I write is supposed to be there. I definitely agree that continuous blogging can help you become a better writer, I have seen it happen first hand with my own writing/blogging. When looking back at some of my very first blog posts I cringe every time I read them, and thats if I actually make it the whole way through the post, so I guess as time has gone on i’ve gained some more experience and some more knowledge to help me out.

The blogosphere is an ideal platform for creating conversations and expressing ideas in a public space and gives invaluable knowledge to a university student like myself. The integration of creating a way an audience can be accessed and an audience can access you along with researching current issues is the perfect way to be released into the public media space. With continuous reflection on my blogging I am able to advance my skills to create more educated opinions and to better my writing skills in time for BCM310 next session. See you then!

References

What Is Street Photography? …Google It (or just read on)

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Have you ever been in public and noticed someone was taking photos of you? How would you feel? Uncomfortable? Would you be ok with someone taking a random, spontaneous photo of you while you were just walking on the street?

For me I guess it would depend on the situation. Say if I was in a big crowd when the photo was being taken I don’t think I would mind. But if it was just me by myself while I was doing something like eating lunch I definitely would not be very keen on having something of that nature, floating around the internet for whatever purpose, without my consent.

Street photography is defined as “mirror images of society, displaying “unmanipulated” scenes, with usually unaware subjects…and often concentrates on a single human moment, caught at a decisive or poignant moment” (Urban Picnic Street Photography 2015). In the YouTube video below Digital Rev TV talk about what street photography is and what the point of it is, in which they define it as being on the street and finding moments of inspiration with a need to take a photo in that moment. Have a watch, Kai presents it in a funny, easy to watch way.

According to the Arts Law Centre of Australia street photography is legal and you generally don’t have to ask for permission from the subject. The real question posed by this is, is it ethical? Although under the law if you are using images for a commercial purpose i.e. for an advertising campaign, there needs to be a release signed by the subject that consent being photographed, and give their permission. Though this still only covers a tiny portion of street photography, so the question of whether it is ethical to take someone’s photo in public without their consent still stands.

Joerg Colberg points out in his blog that taking a picture of someone even if they don’t want it taken is really not such a good idea. He also points out that photographers need to be careful when approaching street photography as many people don’t want to be photographed in public without their consent, even though it might be 100% legal to photograph someone in a public space. A.D Coleman (1987, p.61) argues further that the “integration of photography into the fabric of our culture has alerted us all to the impact of photographs and our own appearance therein.” He also points out that it has therefore created a higher sense of self-consciousness that is projected when we are being photographed.

If I were in the position of taking photographs on the street I would definitely be asking the subjects if they are ok with having their photo taken after I have taken the image, show them, and delete it if they do not feel comfortable with it. It’s really just putting all the power in what the photographer deems as ethical and if they don’t see the need to ask for consent then they really don’t have to.

If you have any thoughts leave a comment below or reach me on Twitter @keiran_mannion.

References

I Got Pitch Slapped For Uni Homework

This week’s blog task, the most interesting one so far, is to plan and undertake a trip to the movies and then blog about it. Easy enough. Going to the cinema has always been an exciting experience for me, especially as a kid when I would get to go with my nan and pop and have a feast with all the candy bar food, or get to go for a birthday party with friends. I do have some very fond memories of visiting the cinema but as time has gone on it is a rare occasion that I actually have time (or money) to see a movie. Although I will always make time to go see something like Star Wars or the latest James Bond movie…who wouldn’t?

With a lack of money and a load of assignments/uni work/work/adult responsibilities I was not able to make it to the movies this week. But I did very recently go see Pitch Perfect 2, “After a humiliating command performance at Lincoln Center, the Barden Bellas enter an international competition that no American group has ever won in order to regain their status and right to perform.” (IMDb 2015), which I will talk about my experience in relation to Hagerstrand’s three human constraints.

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In the 1960’s a man named Torsten Hagerstrand identified three human constraints that has now changed the way social planning works:

  • Capability: can I get there?
  • Coupling: can I get there at the right time?
  • Authority: am I allowed to be there?

Hagerstrand’s 1969 study (cited in Corbett 2011, p. 1) also emphasised the importance of time in human activity. “Time has a critical importance when it comes to fitting people and things together for functioning in socio-economic systems”. With this in mind looking at my trip to the movies in terms of capability, in simple terms I was able to get there. I had the means, my car, the time, as it was late at night and I was neither working nor had anything other prior arrangements or uni work and I had someone to go with, my friend. By choosing a later screening it enabled my friend to be able to attend with me, as it was a movie we were both interested in seeing so I offered to pick her up on my way to our local cinema in Miranda. In reference to the coupling constraint we were both able to make it there due to choosing the latest screening possible, which seems to be quite a popular time among the younger generation. Of course we also had to make time for buying snacks at the candy bar, but with pre bought tickets we had plenty of time. In spatial terms we were assigned seats being at an Events Cinema, but really, let’s be honest, who really sits where they’re supposed to in the cinema? Being a brand new cinema the seats nice, new and we had a comfortable position. I always like sitting in the middle section of the cinema because you get a better view of the movie and that was obviously what everyone else was thinking because all the other moviegoers were sitting in the same spot…convenient.

Looking at cinema attendance in Australia in recent times it is obvious that cinema is withstanding the test of time with competition from those such as video streaming websites, and from Internet film piracy. With the introduction of Netflix in Australia this year audience researcher, Deb Verhoeven (2015) has said that there is evidence showing a decrease of 14% attendance in the number of people that go to the cinema in the past 10 years. But this information is contradicted by the profits of major companies as they are rising which she said is attributed to “savvy pricing strategies at the sector’s high end.”

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This media release from the Australia Bureau of Statistics (2015) highlights that going to the cinema is a very popular thing Australians do from a cultural perspective and also gives rise to the fact that cinema has the ability to withstand new innovations in movie watching.

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If you have any thoughts leave a comment below or reach me on Twitter @keiran_mannion.

References

NBN: Not Bloody Now

With over 12 million Internet subscribers in Australia recorded at the end of December 2014, according to the ABS, you would think that Australia would have high Internet speed and a lot of happy customers…not quite. You could say Internet connection has been a bit of a sensitive topic in my household over the past few years. But it is a solid step up from the good old dial-up days that’s for sure. With about 12 devices (who’s counting?) across 4 people in my household, the battle for a good Internet connection on even just one device while we are all at home is getting pretty intense. I’d like to compare my Internet speed to the picture below.

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I returned to my trusty interviewee (dad) to question him about our Internet connection and all things related. My dad sarcastically commented that getting faster broadband in our house means for us that it “solves some minor first world problems like downloading things faster”. But in all honesty getting faster broadband means all being able to be on the Internet at one time without any problems. We currently have ADSL 2 Internet access with my dad highlighting that we probably will not be able to access the NBN for a few years, but when it is available to us we will definitely be connecting to it. Whether I will still be living at home then is a different question. We are currently getting 500GB a month with a dual band wireless modem which allows different devices to connect to different bands, but with so many devices connecting to the modem, speed is compromised.

From my fathers comments I decided to research the NBN website and see if I could find any useful information that was relevant to our household broadband situation. I came across a ‘speed test‘, which maps the broadband capabilities for my local area.

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Comparing my results with the Australian average I was very unsurprised that our broadband did not stack up too well.

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“The National Broadband Network (NBN) is a national wholesale-only, open-access data network and is under development in Australia” (Wikipedia 2015). Criticised by the Sydney Morning Herald for being slow, expensive and obsolete, the national broadband network “will not provide adequate bandwidth, will be no more affordable than Labor’s FTTP network and will take almost as long to roll out”. If the Coalition had allowed the rolling out of its FTTB network in 2013 instead of trying to change it to an ‘inferior multi-technology mix’, there could have been less money spent and a reliable network could have been delivered to Australia. This now just means for my household, who are yet to even receive the ‘inferior multi-technology mix’, that we are somewhat stuck with a lousy Internet connection for god knows how long.

If you have any thoughts leave a comment below or reach me on Twitter @keiran_mannion.

References

Ethnographic Research and Collaboration

How Can Collaborative Ethnographic Research Be Used to Analyse Contemporary Media Use in the Home? Use Evidence.

When I looked at the topic for this week I really had no idea what ‘collaborative ethnography’ actually meant. So I started researching. As stated by Lassiter “ethnography is, by definition, collaborative”, so basically it is the collaboration of ethnographic researchers and the subjects of that research. Lassiter also sums up the term by stating that “…collaborative ethnography [i]s an approach to ethnography that deliberately and explicitly emphasises collaboration at every point in the ethnographic process, without veiling it…”. The use of collaborative ethnography in terms of researching media use in the home is especially appropriate as there is a need to address community centered questions and issues.

Media audience research has tended to be content focused and skew towards quantitative research. The use of quantitative research in an area as vast as analysing media audiences is not as effective as using a collaborative ethnographic approach, as it leaves out the possibility for personal experience to be apart of the data. Through asking more about a viewer’s personal experience with media, and not just collecting data and creating assumptions on their media consumption, a researcher can gain more insight into how an audience is engaging with media which creates a logical and more comprehensive understanding of their interactions and relationship with media. Qualitative research, being a more logical and data-led approach can only provide a measure of media audiences actions through a more numerical and statistical point of view which has been can then be manipulated and organised into reports for analysis (Source).

Here’s a fun little video outlining the difference between quantitative and qualitative research.

(Source: Youtube)

There are many benefits of using ethnographic research over quantitative research outlined by Experience Research. The main benefits include that ethnography immerses the project team in participants’ lives and enables them to create a connection with the participants and it also helps to identify discrepancies between what people say they do and what they actually do by carrying out research in the everyday life environments of participants.

By conducting an organised interview and collecting data about my father and his past use of television in his household compared to today, I employed the use of ethnographic research. This use allowed me to gather insights and gain a deeper understanding of the opinions he and his family held and the behaviour of his demographic in relation to rapidly developing and innovative technology. Ethnographic research has given me the ability to evaluate the changes in media consumption that my father has gone through, from when he was young and TV was relatively new and exciting to now, allowing a more comprehensive view on how media is consumed by audiences.

References

Benefits of Ethnography 2014, experience research, viewed 21 August 2015, <http://www.experienceresearch.com/benefits-of-ethnography/&gt;.

Lassiter, L.E. 2005, The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethonography, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lassiter, L.E. 2013, Luke Eric Lassiter, Marshall, viewed 21 August 2015, <http://www.marshall.edu/lassiter/styled-3/index.html&gt;.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research2015, British Library Business and IP Centre, viewed 21 August 2015, <http://www.bl.uk/bipc/resmark/qualquantresearch/qualquantresearch.html&gt;.

#TBT: Throwback Television

This clip is taken from the opening moments of the first ABC Television Broadcast in 1956. As you’re watching it you can see how the presenter describes the event. The impact this would have had on Australians tuning in to this broadcast more than half a century ago would have changed the world of many. The introduction of television was allowing people to watch world happenings as they were occurring and take part in the modernising world.

These days televisions are everywhere, I don’t think you can go anywhere without there being a TV involved, even at my job, in a coffee shop.

Television has always played a role in my life, but for older generations, they witnessed the introduction and major changing structure of this media platform into a society that embraced it.

I spoke to my father, who is 47, about what he recalls of the impact and development of tv on his life, which gave me insight into what it was like growing up with television being such a new and impressionable innovation. My father was born into a family that owned a TV, although it was an old black and white set. My mum (51) interjected that she wasn’t lucky enough to be born with a TV in her family, but eventually they did own one, their first being black and white as well. Dad jokingly recalled how the kids were the remote and he, his brother and his sister would have to get up and change the channels.

Back then in his family television was not a highly important feature of everyday life. The tele was not allowed to put on until 5 o’clock and during school holidays they were not allowed to have the TV on during the day, unless the cricket test matches were on of course. Their parents put emphasis on preferring them to be playing outside and doing schoolwork instead of going square eyed in front of the TV.

With the introduction of colour television in the 70’s my dad distinctly remembers how much of a revelation it was to see things like Gilligan’s Island, Countdown also being a favourite in the household, in colour. He was laughing about the fact that he realised Gilligan’s shirt was bright red and that Ginger was called Ginger because she actually had red hair. His earliest memory of colour television is watching an ABBA concert with the rest of the family gathered to tune in too, this being the first concert he saw as well. Their second TV was a coloured one (pictured below), with his family being one of the first people in the street to own a coloured TV. He said it was unusual for them as they were never ones to have anything top of the line new. He described it as being a huge ornamental teak box with a tiny screen.

“It was unusual for us, we were so poor, but I didn’t know it at the time”

A Pye TV – the first colour television owned by my dad’s family

Dad mentioned his early memories of TV included a lot of annoying advertisements. He remembers one for some sort of supabarn which had the catch phrase “where do you get it” spoken in an annoying voice that has stuck in his mind to this day. He also recalls one for Joyce Mane (today’s Harvey Norman) that was particularly irritating. Coca-Cola ads were additionally brought up. They were always about young people with no shirts running around in the sun with the slogan “coke adds life”. He pointed out this was before all the days of sunscreen and sunburn awareness. The Marlboro man was mentioned as being the “coolest guy on TV” and was a memorable figure throughout the early days of watching television.

“Early gaming devices were an exciting introduction. We had to connect them through the old TV in the early 80’s, way before laptops were invented and computers had their own screens and monitors.”

Having a TV meant being in a community for dad. He distinctly remembers going to his mates house across the road because he had a brand new Atari device, where they would play Space Invaders and Frogger.

In his house Saturday night was the most exciting night of the week with there always being a movie of the week on. Although it was usually a war or western film the whole family would gather around the TV with a block of Cadbury’s chocolate to share. He jokingly added on that movies had no surround sound back then. If you wanted that you had to turn the TV up.

The introduction and development of television in the early days seemed to be about bringing the family together to spend some quality time, having more of a privilege attached to being able to watch it. These days television is such a commodity there is probably two running at any given time in my household with people not even watching it. Additionally having more than one TV seems to separate the family rather than bring them together these days. But in saying that, I still love to gather around the lounge room with my family and watch some of our favourite shows together.

I’m Back..Again

Once again the world of blogging is thrust upon me. To introduce myself to those who do not already know me, my name is Keiran, I am 19 and I am currently in my second year of my Communications and Media degree, majoring in Marketing and Advertising (half way through, woo!). I am avidly involved in the media space and have been for quite while now. I have always been one to check my phone as soon as I wake up in the morning in order to make sure I catch up on everything I missed in the world while I was asleep, and to make sure I have taken in every possible piece of information from that day I can before I go to sleep. You could say the media space plays a dominant role in my life.

Bly, Harrison and Irwin (1993, p, 30) define media spaces as “a technologically created environment, emerged from a concern for both the social and technical practices of collaborative work and from an effort to support those practices.”  They have also hihglihted that there is a fundamentally social aspect to participants which is built out of the activites of those involved in the media space. By living in such a technological age, dominated by social media, I have found myself entrenched in the media space. Through blogging, constantly scrolling through Instagram, Facebook, Tumblr and Snapchat, and having the incessant struggle of keeping up to date of every little thing that is happening in our world today I realised that I am the media space. If it weren’t for my indulgence in being so social in such a digitalised way, the media space would be struggling without me and others like me. I am a very active user of social media, from Instagram to Facebook , Tumblr to Twitter, you name it, I most likely am involved with it, my phone rarely leaves my side. I have always been an avid user of social media within the media space and i’m confident that is the way it always will be.

Media use makes it possible to extend our connections with the rest of the world in an instant, reflecting on our need for constant information. My concept of the media space is related to always being able to have access to anything on the internet and within the media space with no hesitations and the constant participation by most people is proof of the effect the media space on those that consume within it.

If you have a spare 18 minutes and 29 seconds I highly recommend watching this Ted Talk by Amanda Burden on how public spaces make cities work. She highlights that lively public spaces are key to planning a great city, and questions what attracts people to successful public spaces. Have a watch.

In the following weeks I will be commenting on anything and everything to do with media, audience and place so stay tuned! More blogs to come!

If you have any thoughts leave a comment below or reach me on Twitter @keiran_mannion.

References

  • Bly, SA, Harrison, SR, & Irwin, S 1993, ‘Media Spaces: Bringing People Together in a Video, Audio, and Computing Environment’, Communications of the ACM, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 28-47.

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